Яндекс.Метрика

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Higher Order s-to-z Mapping Functions for Digital Filters higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
Digital filters are frequently designed by taking an analog (continuous-time) filter and converting it into its digital (discrete-time) equivalent. Linear, time-invariant discrete¬time filters with fixed sampling rates are usually designed by conversions from the analog using bilinear transformation. This book deals with conversions from analog domain into digital domain by higher order s-to-z transformations. By using higher order rules, we obtain better accuracy in digitizing continuous-time filters. Unlike the bilinear transformation, the higher order rules do not have a stability region which cover the entire left-half of the s-plane. The sampling period used in the digitizing process has to be selected in such a way that all the poles of the continuous-time filter lie inside the stability region of the selected rule. Otherwise, the discrete-time filter will be unstable. The start-up error obtained due to the discontinuity in the input signal is also discussed.
4839 RUR
FPGA For Digital Filter And Resource Utilization For Its Maximum Order higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
This book is applicable for those who are interested to design Digital Filters in MATLAB and realize them on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. The Digital Filters have been designed here to test their maximum possible orders, so as to implement them on the available FPGA resources. For testing purpose of such filters at the Analogue front, Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) microcontroller has been deployed here. The filter performance for their different orders has been tested on Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO). This gives satisfaction for the filter designers; without using the dedicated Data Acquisition Cards; being interfaced with the IBM PCs to test the filters designed using MATLAB tool.
4929 RUR
Design of controller for higher order discrete systems higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
In this book a model formulation technique uses the swarm intelligence population based ABC algorithm in its procedure to obtain stable and approximate low order model for the Original higher order discrete systems. The quality of a formulated low order model is judged by designing the PID Controller. PID controller of the formulated low order model efficiently controls the original higher order system. This approach minimizes the complexity involved in direct design of PID controller for higher order discrete systems. The algorithm is simple to implement and computer oriented.
4839 RUR
Sixth-Order Parallel Splitting Method for Diffusion Equation higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
In this book a sixth-order parallel splitting method is developed to get more accurate numerical solution of Parabolic Partial Differential equations. Here sixth-order approximations for second-order parabolic partial differential equations and their algorithms are developed using six parallel processors. In addition to giving a more favorable truncation error, the use of higher order approximates to the matrix exponential functions improves the stability properties of finite difference schemes yielded, which is clear in examples and results are compared.
4839 RUR
Pseudospectral Chebyshev Approximation for Solving Higher-Order BVPs higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
This work presents the Chebyshev spectral collocation method for solving higher-order boundary value problems based on ordinary differential equations. This method depends on using the higher-order pseudospectral differentiation matrices by using an explicit formula for higher-order derivatives of Chebyshev polynomials. Numerical examples of third-order, fourthorder,fifth-order, sixth-order, eighth-order, tenth-order and twelfth order boundary value problems are presented. Numerical experiments and comparisons with other methods are performed to demonstrate the high precision and efficiency of the proposed method. Differentiation matrices are employed to illustrate the proposed method.
4839 RUR
Quality Assurance in Higher Education higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
The book examined policies and practices of quality assurance in higher education in Ghana and New Zealand in order to identify those practices in New Zealand which are potentially applicable to the Ghanaian Higher Education context or which, at least, may suggest a direction for the Ghanaian government to consider for development, critically examined quality assurance literature. Detailed evaluation of national tertiary education policies (policy objectives) of the two countries,formal discussion of the functions and mandates of the external quality assurance agencies for higher institutions,assessed the methodologies employed by the higher institutions and the external quality assurance agencies for the improvement of quality in higher education.
7890 RUR
Double Gate based OTAs for Analog Filters higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
Operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) are considered to be promising as the building blocks for filters, oscillators at high frequencies. Recently, OTAs are developed in three trends- high frequency, high linearity and low power. OTA-C filters are one of the most widely used continuous time filters. In this work, high gain and wide bandwidth operational transconductance amplifier is designed. Further, second order low pass filter and high pass has also been realized using proposed OTA-II. The proposed filter shows wide pass bandwidth along with higher quality factor. The proposed filter also shows lower power dissipation as compare to existing circuit.
4929 RUR
DEBO G2 Professional Digital Matte Box Lens Hood for Video Camcorder / DSRL higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
Functions: Shield your camera from sunlight during shootings prevents lens flares and ensures professional film results. Protects lens from shock and bump Other Features: 1.Selectable four size connectors (6.4cm 7.0cm7.5cm and 8.5cm) to meet the requirement for 4:3 and 16:9 cameras shooting. 2.Professional digital matte box lens hoodCan be installed filters 3.The matte box lens hood can be integral to the right rotationit is convenient to install the camera
9965.04 RUR
LIPA GSND03 4 x 5.2 Graduated ND 0.3 Filter for Lee FK / Cokin Z-Pro + More - Translucent Grey higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
This 100mm x 132mm filter is an important filter for landscape/seascape digital image makers; Allows you to balance the exposure of your image holding back the brighter sky vs. the foreground by 1 f/stops. -LIPA Resin filters are made with the finest CR39 optical material and very easy to clean. -They have field tested perfectly for years and are very neutral. -This Graduated ND filters are compatible with the LIPA 100mm Aluminum Modular Holder the Lee 4 x 4 FK Holder and the Cokin Z-Series holder. -Whatever format you shoot Graduated Neutral Density filters help cameras record scenes more like we see them. - With a broad tonal range that's lost if not captured in the moment. -Soft Edge Graduated Filters perform best in the woodlands mist or interiors or any horizon line that has deviation such Rock Formations Mountains and trees - Wherever there is no definite transition between sky and foreground a soft grad will gently balance exposure across the image. -Neutral Density Grads can be stacked together or with other filters so you can respond to almost any lighting situation.
1782.04 RUR
Hidden Markov Models with Applications in Computational Biology higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
Standard first-order Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are very popular tools for the analysis of sequential data in applied sciences. HMMs are versatile and structurally simple models enabling probabilistic modeling based on a sound theoretical grounding. In contrast to the broad usage of first-order HMMs, applications of higher-order HMMs are very rare, but they have been proven to be powerful extensions of first-order HMMs including applications in speech recognition, image segmentation or computational biology. This book provides the first easily accessible and comprehensive extension of the algorithmic basics of first-order HMMs to higher-order HMMs coupled with practical applications in computational biology. The book starts with a theoretical part developing the algorithmic basics of higher-order HMMs and two novel model extensions (i) parsimonious higher-order HMMs and (ii) HMMs with scaled transition matrices. The second part considers applications of these models to the analysis of different DNA microarray data sets followed by a detailed discussion. The book addresses readers having basic knowledge on first-order HMMs interested to gain more insights on higher-order HMMs.
7890 RUR
LIPA GSND06 4 x 5.2 Graduated ND 0.6 Filter for Lee FK / Cokin Z-Pro + More - Translucent Grey higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
An important filter for landscape/seascape digital image makers; Allows you to balance the exposure of your image holding back the brighter sky vs. the foreground by 2 f/stops. -LIPA Resin filters are made with the finest CR39 optical material and very easy to clean. -They have field tested perfectly for years and are very neutral. -This Graduated ND filters are compatible with the LIPA 100mm Aluminum Modular Holder the Lee 4 x 4 FK Holder and the Cokin Z-Series Holder. -Whatever format you shoot Graduated Neutral Density filters help cameras record scenes more like we see them. - With a broad tonal range that's lost if not captured in the moment. -Soft Edge Graduated Filters perform best in the woodlands mist or interiors or any horizon line that has deviation such Rock Formations Mountains and trees - Wherever there is no definite transition between sky and foreground a soft grad will gently balance exposure across the image. -Neutral Density Grads can be stacked together or with other filters so you can respond to almost any lighting situation.
1782.04 RUR
Higher Order Mortar Finite Elements with Dual Lagrange Multipliers higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
Higher Order Mortar Finite Elements with Dual Lagrange Multipliers presents the theories and applications of higher order nonconforming finite element techniques based on the mortar method. As the mortar finite element method is based on replacing the usual point-wise continuity condition by a weak matching condition, the dual Lagrange multipliers allow an efficient and easy realization of this weak matching condition. In addition to the main contribution of this work on the construction of dual Lagrange basis functions for higher order finite elements in two and three dimensions, there are also some interesting theoretical advancement and applications of the mortar finite elements. Moreover, a popular three-field formulation in elasticity, the Hu-Washizu principle, is analysed for linear elasticity and extended to non-linear elasticity. Mortar techniques are applied to analyse interface problems for elliptic partial differential equations and to solve different coupled problems coming from physical and engineering applications.
6690 RUR
Vlsi Design of Advanced Digital Filters higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
The Cascaded Integrator Comb filters (CIC) find many applications in recent electronic devices such as frequency selection functions in a digital radio or modem and any filter structure that is required to efficiently process large sample rate factor. These filters are normally located after the sigma delta modulator and have regular structure. These types of filters do not require multipliers and the coefficient storage unlike in the normal digital FIR and IIR filters because of all filter coefficients are unity. Hence, it can be efficiently implemented to operate at high speed. Hence, this book describes the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) implementation of the CIC filters that are suitable for high performance audio applications. A total of five cascaded integrators and comb pairs were chosen to meet the design requirement, particularly the effect of signal aliasing to increase the performance. The CIC filter makes use of pipeline architecture that consists of fast adders.
4139 RUR
Repulsive electron-electron interaction and nuclear charge screening higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
The development of simple analytical method(s) for solving the first-order wave functions and the second-order energy for two-electron atoms has remained a major challenge of theoretical atomic physics. The failure to overcome this challenge has motivated progress in the variational-perturbation method. However, the main drawback of the method is that it fails to directly account for the mechanisms which cause nuclear charge screening usually introduced as one of the variation parameters. In the book, we have developed a simple analytical solution to the Schrodinger equation for two-electron atoms based on a model that formulates the role of the repulsive electron-electron interaction term in nuclear charge screening. We have obtained an analytical expression of the first-order perturbed wave functions for two-electron atoms in the model and applied it to calculate second-order energy. The general analytic structure of the wave functions is an important guideline in the choice of the basis functions for use in the variational calculations.
4839 RUR
Complex Correspondences and Functions in Schema Mappings higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
Schema and Ontology Mapping play a crucial role whenever heterogeneous data sources are to be integrated or merged. There are already countless matching tools that semi-automatically calculate the correspondences between elements of diverse database schemas, however, there is hardly any solution that could discover many-to-one correspondences (complex correspondences) or transformation functions, which are inevitable prerequisites for precise schema mapping and accurate data transformation. In this study, we give a profound introduction in complex correspondences and transformation functions as part of schema mappings. Starting from theoretic aspects, use cases and examples, we reveal the shortcomings of today's schema and ontology mapping tools, and subsequently present versatile strategies how complex correspondences and transformation functions can be semi-automatically discovered in a given schema or ontology mapping, thus considerably reducing the manual effort of mapping post-processing. We finally explain how we integrated the approach in our schema and ontology matcher COMA++ and evaluate it w.r.t. to time complexity and precision. Among others, we could demonstrate that the obvious neglect of complex correspondence and function detection, both in academic research and industry, is by no means justified, and that there are decent strategies to actually cope with it.
5590 RUR
Multirate Systems and Filterbanks higher order s to z mapping functions for digital filters
Window functions have been successfully used in various areas such as filtering, beam forming and multirate signal processing. Due to available closed form expressions, the role of windows is economical. One of the key applications is the design of FIR filters. These filters are used in decimators and interpolators which are the basic building blocks for any multirate system and filterbank. In present scenario, a system with an improved performance, better quality, little error is the prime requirement. With this objective FIR multirate filters are designed using window functions. These functions can be used to design half-band filters where fifty percent filter coefficients result with zero value. With bandpass filters more than seventy percent zero valued coefficients are obtained if they preserved the concept of half-band symmetry. On the basis of error criterion filterbanks are of two types, viz., pseudo filterbanks and perfect reconstructed filterbanks. A new linear optimization algorithm is applied to obtain the pseudo filterbanks. Lag windows can be used to design energy efficient filters called compaction filters. The compaction gain is very near to optimal ones.
4839 RUR